Getting started with HAProxy and MySQL replication

 

Preamble

When testing Connector/J with MySQL replication I have been quite disappointed by failover capabilities and when discussing with SkySQL support and reading a bit on Internet I reached the conclusion that I had to put a new component in my infrastructure to be really able to benefit from MySQL replication high availability at application level.

At this stage either you put n expensive hardware like a F5 box or a software equivalence. I have chosen to test one of the most famous, that is free by the way, called HAProxy !

This blog post has been written using MySQL 5.6.15 and HAProxy 1.4.24 running on Oracle Linux Server release 6.5. My server list is the following:

  1. server1.domain.com for MySQL master server using 192.168.56.101 non-routable IP address
  2. server2.domain.com for MySQL slave server using 192.168.56.102 non-routable IP address
  3. server3.domain.com for HAProxy server using 192.168.56.103 and 192.168.56.104 non-routable IP addresses

HAProxy installation

As usual when installing those kind of open source product either you start from the source or a executable or from the repository of your Linux distribution:

[root@server3 ~]# yum list haproxy
Loaded plugins: security
Installed Packages
haproxy.x86_64                                          1.4.24-2.el6                                            @public_ol6_latest

My HAProxy server has IP address 192.168.56.103, I need a second one to have a dedicated IP for writes and a dedicated one for reads (so 192.168.56.104). Naming convention is to increment current interface name with : and a number i.e. eth1:0, eth1:1. So in /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts I create ifcfg-eth1:0 (inherited from ifcfg-eth1 except for IP address) below script (eth1 interface handle my non routing IPs):

DEVICE=eth1:0
HWADDR=08:00:27:2a:c3:94
TYPE=Ethernet
UUID=b3ddb46f-ced0-4905-a0f4-888ebca9e8c3
ONBOOT=yes
NM_CONTROLLED=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
IPADDR=192.168.56.104
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
IPV6INIT=no
USERCTL=no

To validate new configuration use service network restart. You should see something like:

[root@server3 haproxy]# ifconfig
eth0      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:7E:10:D4
          inet addr:10.0.2.15  Bcast:10.0.2.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fe7e:10d4/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:3 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:13 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:794 (794.0 b)  TX bytes:1255 (1.2 KiB)
 
eth1      Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:2A:C3:94
          inet addr:192.168.56.103  Bcast:192.168.56.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          inet6 addr: fe80::a00:27ff:fe2a:c394/64 Scope:Link
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
          RX packets:351 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:325 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
          RX bytes:33634 (32.8 KiB)  TX bytes:41357 (40.3 KiB)
 
eth1:0    Link encap:Ethernet  HWaddr 08:00:27:2A:C3:94
          inet addr:192.168.56.104  Bcast:192.168.56.255  Mask:255.255.255.0
          UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST  MTU:1500  Metric:1
 
lo        Link encap:Local Loopback
          inet addr:127.0.0.1  Mask:255.0.0.0
          inet6 addr: ::1/128 Scope:Host
          UP LOOPBACK RUNNING  MTU:65536  Metric:1
          RX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
          TX packets:0 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
          collisions:0 txqueuelen:0
          RX bytes:0 (0.0 b)  TX bytes:0 (0.0 b)

Configuration

As I plan to use the mysql-check option (Use for MySQL health checks server testing) I need the MySQL client on my HAProxy server, for this simply take the old release that comes with my Linux distribution:

[root@server3 etc]# yum -y install mysql.x86_64
Loaded plugins: security
Setting up Install Process
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.71-1.el6 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution
 
Dependencies Resolved
 
===============================================================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                      Arch                                          Version                                             Repository                                                Size
===============================================================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 mysql                                        x86_64                                        5.1.71-1.el6                                        public_ol6_latest                                        893 k
 
Transaction Summary
===============================================================================================================================================================================================================
Install       1 Package(s)
 
Total download size: 893 k
Installed size: 2.4 M
Downloading Packages:
mysql-5.1.71-1.el6.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                                                           | 893 kB     00:01
Running rpm_check_debug
Running Transaction Test
Transaction Test Succeeded
Running Transaction
Warning: RPMDB altered outside of yum.
  Installing : mysql-5.1.71-1.el6.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                   1/1
  Verifying  : mysql-5.1.71-1.el6.x86_64                                                                                                                                                                   1/1
 
Installed:
  mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.71-1.el6
 
Complete!

Create a dedicated HAProxy monitoring account On all MySQL servers (if using MySQL replication the command should be replicated from master to all slaves):

mysql> create user 'haproxy_check'@'192.168.56.103';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
 
mysql> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

Remark:
This account does not need any privileges and certainly not the SUPER USER privileges like I have seen on some web sites. Moreover as this account is password less giving highest privilege to it is a very very bad security idea.

I inherited the default HAProxy configuration and added my own configuration options:

[root@server3 haproxy]# cat haproxy.cfg
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# Example configuration for a possible web application.  See the
# full configuration options online.
#
#   http://haproxy.1wt.eu/download/1.4/doc/configuration.txt
#
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# Global settings
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
global
    # to have these messages end up in /var/log/haproxy.log you will
    # need to:
    #
    # 1) configure syslog to accept network log events.  This is done
    #    by adding the '-r' option to the SYSLOGD_OPTIONS in
    #    /etc/sysconfig/syslog
    #
    # 2) configure local2 events to go to the /var/log/haproxy.log
    #   file. A line like the following can be added to
    #   /etc/sysconfig/syslog
    #
    #    local2.*                       /var/log/haproxy.log
    #
    log         127.0.0.1 local2
 
    chroot      /var/lib/haproxy
    pidfile     /var/run/haproxy.pid
    maxconn     4000
    user        haproxy
    group       haproxy
    daemon
 
    # turn on stats unix socket
    stats socket /var/lib/haproxy/stats
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# common defaults that all the 'listen' and 'backend' sections will
# use if not designated in their block
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
defaults
    mode                    http
    log                     global
    option                  httplog
    option                  dontlognull
#    option http-server-close
#    option forwardfor       except 127.0.0.0/8
    option                  redispatch
    retries                 3
    timeout http-request    10s
    timeout queue           1m
    timeout connect         10s
    timeout client          1m
    timeout server          1m
    timeout http-keep-alive 10s
    timeout check           10s
    maxconn                 3000
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# MySQL read-write server
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
frontend mysql_write
  mode tcp
  bind 192.168.56.103:3316
  default_backend cluster_db_write
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# MySQL read-only server
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
frontend mysql_read
  mode tcp
  bind 192.168.56.104:3316
  default_backend cluster_db_read
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# MySQL read-write cluster
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
backend cluster_db_write
  mode tcp
  option tcpka
	option mysql-check user haproxy_check
  balance roundrobin
  server Node1 192.168.56.101:3316 check
  server Node2 192.168.56.102:3316 check backup
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# MySQL read-only cluster
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
backend cluster_db_read
  mode tcp
  option tcpka
	option mysql-check user haproxy_check
  balance roundrobin
  server Node2 192.168.56.102:3316 check
  server Node1 192.168.56.101:3316 check backup
 
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
# Http listen port for graphical status
#---------------------------------------------------------------------
listen stats *:8080
       mode http
       option httpclose
       balance roundrobin
       stats uri /
       stats realm Haproxy\ Statistics
       stats auth admin:admin

Notes:

  • I have two front ends (mysql_write and mysql_read) for read-write and read-only queries respectively listening on IP address 192.168.56.103, port 3316 and IP address 192.168.56.104, port 3316
  • each fronted is using a backend called cluster_db_write and cluster_db_read. For cluster_db_write MySQL master server (server1.domain.com) is main server and MySQL slave server (server2.domain.com) act as a backup server (the slave promotion has to be done externally and is obviously not manage by HAProxy). For cluster_db_read MySQL slave server (server2.domain.com) is main server and MySQL master server (server1.domain.com) act as a backup server (in case of slave down MySQL master server will also server read-only queries)

We can finally start HAPRoxy with:

[root@server3 ~]# service haproxy start
Starting haproxy:                                          [  OK  ]

You can confirm all is fine with:

[root@server3 ~]# service haproxy status
haproxy (pid  12650) is running...
[root@server3 ~]# ps -ef | grep haproxy |grep -v grep
haproxy  12650     1  0 12:36 ?        00:00:18 /usr/sbin/haproxy -D -f /etc/haproxy/haproxy.cfg -p /var/run/haproxy.pid
[root@server3 haproxy]# netstat -an |grep LISTEN  | grep 3316
tcp        0      0 192.168.56.104:3316         0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN
tcp        0      0 192.168.56.103:3316         0.0.0.0:*                   LISTEN

Testing

I’m almost using the same Java code like when testing Connector/J with MySQL replication:

package jdbcdemo1;
 
import com.mysql.jdbc.Driver;
 
import java.sql.ResultSet;
import java.util.Properties;
import java.sql.Connection;
import java.sql.SQLException;
 
public class jdbcdemo1 {
  public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
    Driver driver = new Driver();
    Properties props = new Properties();
    ResultSet rs;
    String variable_value;
    Connection conn = null;
    String JDBC_URL = "jdbc:mysql:replication://address=(protocol=tcp)(host=192.168.56.103)(port=3316)(type=master),"
    				+ "address=(protocol=tcp)(host=192.168.56.104)(port=3316)(type=slave)";
 
    props.put("user", "yjaquier");
    props.put("password", "secure_password");
 
    System.out.println("\n------------ MySQL Connector/J and MySQL Replication Testing ------------\n");
 
    try {
    	Class.forName("com.mysql.jdbc.ReplicationDriver");
    }
    catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
    	System.out.println("Where is your MySQL JDBC Driver?");
    	e.printStackTrace();
    	return;
	}
 
    System.out.println("MySQL Connector/J driver loaded");
 
 
    for(int i=1; i <= 1000; i++) {
        System.out.println("Trying connection...");
 
        try {
    		conn = driver.connect(JDBC_URL, props);
    	}
    	catch (SQLException e) {
    		System.out.println("Connection Failed! Check output console");
    		System.out.println("Error cause: "+e.getCause());
    		System.out.println("Error message: "+e.getMessage());
    		return;
    	}
 
        System.out.println("Connection established...");
 
        System.out.println("\nQuery "+i+": ");
    	// Fake Read Write SQL statement (just to see where it goes)
    	System.out.println("Read Write query...");
    	try {
    		conn.setReadOnly(false);
    	}
    	catch (SQLException e) {
    		System.out.println("Connection read write property set has has failed...");
    	}
 
    	try {
    		rs = conn.createStatement().executeQuery("SELECT variable_value FROM information_schema.global_variables where variable_name='hostname'");
    		while (rs.next()) {
    			variable_value = rs.getString("variable_value");
    			System.out.println("variable_value : " + variable_value);
    		}
	    }
    	catch (SQLException e) {
    		System.out.println("Read/write query has failed...");
    		//System.out.println("Error cause: "+e.getCause());
    		//System.out.println("Error message: "+e.getMessage());
    	}
 
    	// Read Only statement
    	System.out.println("Read Only query...");
    	try {
    		conn.setReadOnly(true);	
    	}
    	catch (SQLException e) {
    		System.out.println("Connection read only property set has has failed...");
    	}
 
    	try {
    		rs = conn.createStatement().executeQuery("SELECT variable_value FROM information_schema.global_variables where variable_name='hostname'");
    		while (rs.next()) {
    			variable_value = rs.getString("variable_value");
    			System.out.println("variable_value : " + variable_value);
    		}
    		}
    	catch (SQLException e) {
    		System.out.println("Read only query has failed...");
    	}
    	conn.close();
    	Thread.sleep(2000);
    }
  }
}

Except that I close the connection (conn.close()) and initiate a new one at each loop (conn = driver.connect(JDBC_URL, props)). I have spent almost one day on this but if you don’t do it then Connector/J is moving, for example, the read-only queries to server1.domain.com if server2.domain.com is down but when server2.domain.com is back to life Connector/J is never using server2.domain.com anymore till you do not close and re-initiate the connection… Without I can explain why…

All the failover scenario, MySQL master server down or MySQL slave server down are working very well. When all servers are up and running the status http page (server3.domain.com:8080) is giving:

haproxy1
haproxy1

If, for example, MySQL slave server is down (server2.domain.com), then in this case read-only queries are automatically redirected to MySQL master server (server1.domain.com) and HAProxy status page gives:

haproxy2
haproxy2

From my Eclipse Java project it is transparently managed, thanks to HAProxy:

haproxy3
haproxy3

References

7 thoughts on “Getting started with HAProxy and MySQL replication

  1. Pingback: Haproxy+Keepalived+MySQL实现读均衡负载 -
  2. Hi.i want to use haproxy to loadbalance mysql database with one master and a slave.Currently,my application uses eclipse with tomcat to listen to master database,specifying the ipaddress and hostname,along with username,password and name of database.How do i change my configuration to allow jdbc to connect to haproxy load balancer directly to distribute queries??

      • Hi,the problem is i need to change my configuration such that the application will listen to server with haproxy,to forward it to master and slave.

        192.168.x.M:3306=master ip address and port
        192.168.x.S:3306=slave ip address and port
        192.168.x.H:3306=haproxy load balancer ip address and port

        The present context.xml file looks like

        But the haproxy load balancer server will not have the database in it.All permissions have been granted in the master mysql.So how do I make the application listen to loadbalancer server instead of master or slave??

        Thanks in advance.Your posts are very clear and informative

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

You may use these HTML tags and attributes:

<a href="" title=""> <abbr title=""> <acronym title=""> <b> <blockquote cite=""> <cite> <code> <del datetime=""> <em> <i> <q cite=""> <s> <strike> <strong>